Conjugation classes

CA1

 

There are two conjugation classes. The first consists of schwache i.e regular verbs and the second of starke i.e. irregular verbs.

 

Irregular verbs include mixed verbs, auxiliary verbs and modal verbs.


CA1A

The majority of the German verbs are regular. Regular verbs do not change their verb stem in any tense or mood.

 

Example
spiel
-en
spiel-t spiel-te ge-spiel-t
         
verb stem
ending
3rd person present 3rd person Präteritum  past participle (Partizip II)


CA1B

Irregular verbs change their verb stem, at least between the present tense and the Präteritum.

 

Examples
komm
-en
kam o --- a
geh
-en
ging e --- i
verb stem
ending
 1st / 3rd person Präteritum verb stem vowel


CA1C

Mixed verbs are irregular verbs that also have characteristics of regular verbs. Mixed verbs change their verb stem vowel in the Präteritum and in the past participle (Partizip II), but take the endings of regular verbs both in the Präteritum and in the past participle (Partizip II).

 

Examples
bring
-en
brach-te ge-brach-t
       
verb stem
ending
 1st / 3rd person Präteritum past participle (Partizip II)


CA1D

Auxiliary verbs haben, sein and werden are irregular verbs. Their finite verb forms, combined with a non-finite verb form of a full verb (infinitive, past participle) are used to build the complex tenses and the passive voice form of the respective full verbs.


CA1E

Modal verbs dürfen, können, mögen, müssen, sollen and wollen are also irregular verbs. They are mostly combined with the infinitive of a full verb.