Semantic categories and verbal aspects

 

Aspects of verbs

 

Verbal aspects differentiate the meaning of the action, process or state described by the verb according to its temporal and semantic progress.

 

 

They fall into the following categories:

 

 

1. Imperfective (Durativ) verbs denote an event that is not limited in time.

Examples
arbeiten, schlafen, sehen, laufen, essen, wandern etc.

 

 

  Imperfective (Durativ) verbs also include

 

  Examples
verbs that express repetition of an action/event (frequentativ) streicheln, plätschern, flattern etc.
verbs that  increase the intensity of an action/event (intensiv) brüllen, saufen etc.
verbs that decrease the intensity of an action/event (diminutiv) lächeln, hüsteln etc.

  

 

 

2. Perfective (Perfektiv) verbs denote an event that is limited in time. 

 

Examples
einschlafen, beginnen, aufhören, weggehen, abfliegen etc.

 

 

  Perfective verbs also include

 

  Examples
verbs that express the beginning of an event/action (ingressiv) losfahren, einschlafen, weggehen etc.
verbs that express the end of an event/action (egressiv) finden, verblühen, platzen etc.
verbs that express a gradual transition from one state to another (mutativ) reifen, altern, rosten etc.
verbs that express transition to a new state (kausativ) sprengen, öffnen, beugen etc.