Formation of the imperative

CA96

 

The imperative of regular verbs is formed, in the singular number, by deleting the personal pronoun du and the ending -st of the second person singular of the present tense indicative:

 

imperative second person singular  
spielen
öffnen
arbeiten
 
 
 
 
 
du spielst
du öffnest
du arbeitest
present tense conjugation
 
 
 
 
spiel *
öffne **
arbeite ***
imperative form

 

* Seldom, but possible, is the addition of the suffix "e" (spiele).
** The use of the suffix "e" is obligatory for verbs whose present tense stem ends in a plosive - or a fricative consonant + "n" or "m".
*** The suffix "e" is often added to verbs with a present tense stem ending in "-d/t", "-ig", "-el" or "-er". In such a case, the "e" of the "-el" and the "-er" ending can be omitted.


CA96A

 

The imperative of irregular verbs is formed, in the singular number, by deleting the personal pronoun du and the ending -st of the second person singular of the present tense indicative. When the verb stem vowel takes an Umlaut (ä / äu / ö) , the Umlaut is omitted.

 

imperative second person singular  
kommen
fahren
geben
 
 
 
 
 
du kommst
du fährst
du gibst
present tense conjugation
 
 
 
 
komm
fahr
gib *
imperative form

 

* Verbs that change their stem vowel from "i to ie" in the present tense, always form the imperative without the suffix "e"  (exception: sehen).


CA96B

In plural, the imperative of both regular and irregular verbs is formed by deleting the personal pronoun ihr of the second person plural of the present tense indicative:

 

imperative second person plural (regular verbs)  
spielen
öffnen
arbeiten
 
 
 
 
 
ihr spielt
ihr öffnet
ihr arbeitet
present tense conjugation
 
 
 
 
spielt
öffnet
arbeitet
imperative form

 

imperative second person plural (irregular verbs)  
kommen
fahren
geben
 
 
 
 
 
ihr kommt
ihr fahrt
ihr gebt
present tense conjugation
 
 
 
 
kommt
fahrt
gebt
imperative form


CA96C

The polite form of the imperative of both regular and irregular verbs is formed by placing the personal pronoun Sie after the verb.

 

imperative second person plural (regular verbs)  
spielen
öffnen
arbeiten
 
 
 
 
 
Sie spielen
Sie öffnen
Sie arbeiten
present tense conjugation
 
 
 
 
spielen Sie
öffnen Sie
arbeiten Sie
imperative form

 

imperative second person plural (irregular verbs)  
kommen
fahren
geben
 
 
 
 
 
Sie kommen
Sie fahren
Sie geben
present tense conjugation
 
 
 
 
kommen Sie
fahren Sie
geben Sie
imperative form


CA96D

 

Exceptions in the formation of the imperative:

 

sein
haben
werden
 
sei
hab
werde
second person singular
seid
habt
werdet
second person plural
seien Sie
haben Sie
werden Sie
polite form

 




Modal verbs do not form the imperative.