Words like the following are called nouns. In the German language, all nouns are written with a capital initial letter.


Mann, Hund, Rose, Haus, Zeitung, Wasser, Holz, Klaus, Bayern, Liebe, Stolz, Freundschaft, Schlag, Alter


Nouns are divided in two categories: in concrete nouns, that refer to people, animals, plants or objects and in abstract nouns, that refer to actions, state, properties, conditions etc.


Nouns can be used as subject, object, predicative expression, adverbial or attribute:


subject Meine Mutter kocht sehr gut.
object Alexander studiert Medizin.
predicative expression Ihr Ehemann ist Pilot.
adverbial Morgen fliegen wir nach Berlin.
attribute Das Interesse der Menschen war sehr groß.


Each noun belongs to a gender, indicated mainly by the definite article that accompanies the noun. There are three genders:


gender masculine der Motor
feminine die Nacht
neuter das Buch


Nouns are inflected in number and case. In the German language, there are two numbers


number singular Frau
plural Frauen


and four cases:


case nominative Haus
genitive Hauses
dative Haus
accusative Haus