Semantic categories and verbal aspects

 

Verbs can be classified into various semantic categories according to the meaning they express, i.e. a action, a state or a process undergone by the subject.

 

 

1. Verbs that express action/activity

 

Verbs of this category express an action performed by the subject.

 

Examples
singen, arbeiten, schlagen, essen, anrufen, spielen, erschießen, zerstören, bauen, helfen, lesen, gehen, schreiben, lachen etc.

 

 

2. Verbs that express an action performed by the subject

 

Verbs of this category express a change in the subject; they also express a process that the subject undergoes.

 

Examples
einschlafen, verhungern, sterben, erfrieren, wachsen, fallen, erfrieren, aufwachen etc.

 

 

3. Verbs that express state

 

Verbs of this category express a state. The subject undergoes no change.

 

Examples
leben, sein, wohnen, liegen, sich befinden, schlafen etc.