The past participle (Partizip II)

CA126

 

The past participle (Partizip II) of regular verbs is formed with the prefix ge-, the verb stem and the ending -t.

 

infinitive past participle (Partizip II)
spielen ge-spiel-t
kochen ge-koch-t
tanzen ge-tanz-t
lernen ge-lern-t
malen ge-mal-t

 

When the verb stem ends in -d or -t, it takes the ending -et. This is also the case with verbs whose stem ends in a consonant + -m, -n. Exception: When an -r stands before -m or -n,  like verbs formen, wärmen, lernen, turnen.

 

infinitive past participle (Partizip II)
arbeit-en ge-arbeit-et
red-en ge-red-et
rechn-en ge-rechn-et
atm-en ge-atm-et


CA126A

 

The past participle (Partizip II)  of irregular verbs is formed with the prefix ge-, the present perfect stem and the ending -en.

 

infinitive past participle (Partizip II)
lesen ge-les-en
fahren ge-fahr-en
bitten ge-bet-en
gehen ge-gang-en
treffen ge-troff-en


CA126B

 

Mixed verbs form the past participle (Partizip II) with the prefix ge-, the present perfect stem and the ending -t.

 

infinitive past participle (Partizip II)
denken ge-dach-t
bringen ge-brach-t
kennen ge-kann-t
nennen ge-nann-t
rennen ge-rann-t


CA126C

 

Certain verbs form the past participle (Partizip II) without the prefix ge-.

 

  verbs that form the past participle (Partizip II) without ge-  Examples
A
inseparable verbs with prefixes er-, ver-, zer-, be-, ge-, ent-, emp-, hinter- erklärt, verstanden, zerstört, bekommen, genesen, entkommen, empfohlen, hinterfragt
B
separable verbs that are formed with a verb belonging to group A or C  vorbereitet, abbezahlt, überreagiert
C
verbs ending in -ieren studiert, repariert, telefoniert
D
verbs with prefixes über-, unter-, um-, durch-, wider-, when they are inseparable and unstressed umarmt, überstanden, durchdacht


CA126D

 

Inflected and non-inflected forms of the past participle (Partizip II)

 

 

When the past participle (Partizip II) is combined with a finite verb form, it is not inflected. Its subject is identical to the subject of the finite verb.

 

Example
Paul hat die ganze Pizza gegessen.

 

 

When the past participle (Partizip II) precedes a noun, it is inflected, similarly to an adjective and according to the gender, case and number of the noun. It can take a number of arguments (objects, adverbials), both required or free.

 

Example
Die zur Party eingeladenen Freunde.