Present participle (Partizip I)

 

The present participle (Partizip I) is formed with the present infinitive (active voice) and the ending -d.

 

Examples
spielen-d
fahren-d
tanzen-d
sprechen-d
ändern-d

 


 

 

Variable and invariable forms of the present participle (Partizip I)

 

 

When the present participle (Partizip I) is combined with a finite verb form, it remains invariable. Its subject is the subject of the finite verb.

 

Example
Paul betrat lachend das Zimmer.

 

It can take a number of arguments, required or free.

 

Example
Paul betrat laut lachend das Zimmer.

 

 

When the present participle (Partizip I) precedes a noun, it is variable. It functions as an adjective and is inflected according to the noun's gender, case and number. It can take a number of arguments, required or not.

 

Example
Die laut lachenden Kinder betraten das Zimmer.