The past participle (Partizip II)


The past participle (Partizip II) of regular verbs is formed with the prefix ge-, the verb stem and the ending -t.


infinitive past participle (Partizip II)
spielen ge-spiel-t
kochen ge-koch-t
tanzen ge-tanz-t
lernen ge-lern-t
malen ge-mal-t


When the verb stem ends in -d or -t, it takes the ending -et. This is also the case with verbs whose stem ends in a consonant + -m, -n. Exception: When an -r stands before -m or -n,  like verbs formen, wärmen, lernen, turnen.


infinitive past participle (Partizip II)
arbeit-en ge-arbeit-et
red-en ge-red-et
rechn-en ge-rechn-et
atm-en ge-atm-et